Ancient Roman Architecture and the World
Roman architecture was of great significance in the ancient society. Most importantly, the remainders of those works are evident today revealing that the complexity of their tasks and roles enhanced the cultural development. There are three most prominent architectural works of the Romans, which include the Pantheon, aqueducts as well as the Coliseum. Each of these works is a clear representation of the architectural advancements of the ancient period. Moreover, ingenuity is evidenced in these works of architecture. It is through the analysis of the three monuments that one can easily understand the way that they attributed to the processes of urbanization. The Pantheon has emerged as one of the most vital monuments of the traditional Roman architecture. The Pantheon was followed by vast construction of many buildings, such as temples and learning institutions that adopted its design of the dome and roofing systems. The concrete formulas were also used by various constructors across Rome and other parts of the world. Vaults and arches continued to be constructed in the same manner after the accomplishment of the Pantheon. This paper brings it the great influences of the Pantheon on the following architectural works. This monument has several accomplishments that have contributed greatly to the architecture after it was accomplished.
The Roman Pantheon has significant structural peculiarities, including oculus or the dome. It was an amazing contribution of the constructors that transformed the Roman community’s urbanization. Moreover, the influence fell on the cultures, which is still evident even in the modern Rome. Moreover, the Pantheon was the largest and most effective of the circular temples in Rome (Anderson, 2012). In fact, it was a place of worship committed to all pagan gods across Rome. The building was constructed between 118 and 125 A.D. which is clearly written on the brick stamps on the edges. It was between those times that Hadrian constructed the building in order to replace the commander’s Pantheon that had burned to ashes. It is vital to look at the materials that were used in its construction. In that case, the materials were representative of a light and new masterpiece (Sear, 1983). The dome on the top of the building was constructed in an advanced way and was the first of its kind. The walls were made of bricks that were enhanced with concrete at the low levels, since stability and strength was required in that point. Moreover, the structure of the building consisted of several arches. The dome was also constructed on the basis of several arches (Taylor, 2014). As a result, the Pantheon had influenced many artists during the period of Renaissance. It had also been used as a tomb for great people in the Italian history.
It is quite clear that the architects and artist from the period of Renaissance were influenced by the Pantheon up to the 19th century. This aspect creates a representation of a period of architectural revolution in Rome. The architects were confident with adopting the usage of high-quality constructing inputs. The Pantheon has also been influential across the parts of Europe and the United States since the 19th century (Taylor, 2014). Therefore, many city buildings and learning institutions are the representations of the Pantheon’s architecture. They follow the famous dome structure. Some of the examples of such prominent buildings include Thomas Jefferson’s Rotunda, Victoria in Melbourne and Low Library in New York (Stek, 2014). However, there are some alterations in the interior designs. It does not mean that everything has been changed in the modern buildings. The influence of the Roman buildings can be easily recovered in many constructions up to the 20th century. Furthermore, the Roman Pantheon acts as a representation of urbanization in the region that has prolonged up to the current time. This building provides a glimpse of the stunning Roman architecture (Sear, 1983). The Pantheon continues to affect architectural works across the world even in the 21st century.
Most importantly, the Roman architects and artists adopted the use of certain techniques for the construction of the Pantheon’s arch and vault. These two structures enhanced the development of engineering in the ancient Rome (Stek, 2014). The Romans continued to use post and lintel techniques of construction for both arches and domes of the Pantheon. It emerged that the vaulting methods used by the Romans for the construction of the Pantheon were easy geometric procedures including the “barrel, segmental and groin vaults (Taylor, 2014).” In addition, the vaults were surfaced using stucco or well designed tiles. For example, the techniques used for the Pantheon influenced the construction of Basilica of Maxentius (Taylor, 2014). Evidently, the most natural development involving the vault after the Pantheon was the dome. The dome enhanced the building of ceilings and roofs of huge public buildings in Rome. As a result, the Roman architects continued to depend entirely on the dome for most sections of their construction. The Roman architectural design was based on the building of unique forms of domes that could fit into the integrated plans of the basements. Furthermore, the mastery applied in the construction of the Roman Pantheon influenced the development of concrete. This material solved the problem of monumental construction (Kleiner, 2014). The mastery used in preparing concrete emerged as a major development due to the strength, flexibility and convenience. The concrete has enabled many buildings to withstand internal thrusts along with external strains. The use of concrete for the Pantheon influenced many architects to use the same material. As a result, most of the buildings constructed with the help of this substance still stand strong in the current times (Stek, 2014).
Noticeably, most of the European cities are representations of the power of the ancient Rome, which is manifested in the current Western world. The architectural design of the Pantheon was transferred by those who came to visit Rome. As mentioned earlier, those designs were implemented for the construction of the major buildings in the Western world. It may be concluded that the Roman works of mastery were the indications of practical characters as well as organizational thoughts and restless power, which enabled to formulate great buildings. The constructors of the Pantheon had used the Etruscan art and design greatly. This fact reveals that they have been influenced from the artistry works of Greece (Taylor, 2014). Most importantly, they also constructed the Pantheon following some of the techniques used in the Egyptian pyramids and stonework (Stek, 2014). The domes on top of the buildings have generally followed the same design. Moreover, the Pantheon was built with the help of wooden scaffolding, which was used for most buildings that were built later. Additionally, the elegant coffers across the dome were externally flipped in order to fit effectively in the corners. This structure was reflected in many buildings across Rome and the Western world.
What is more, the Pantheon also influenced the way that the drainage systems were constructed. The drainage system of the Pantheon was clearly unique, but it was eventually adopted for other buildings. Following the interior design of the building, other architects continued to improve their decorations that had roots in the Pantheon (Kleiner, 2014). It has not only become evident in the temples, but also in the trading places, public meeting sites, theaters and circuses. It is clear that most of the strong ancient buildings in Rome followed closely the designs and construction materials adopted for the Pantheon.
In conclusion, the Pantheon had great influence on the buildings that came after it. It is not only evident in Rome, but also across many other nations in the Western world, who visited Rome and were inspired by the Pantheon. In fact, most of the vaults and arches in many buildings that followed the Pantheon used the same design. Research indicates that the Pantheon has contributed greatly to the urbanization as well as architecture of the contemporary and future centuries. Every monument that was built after the Pantheon helped define the Roman history. The building has introduced new as well as improved constructing methods along with designs. In most cases, it is difficult to fathom the way that the ancient Roman architects were in the position to construct such a vast and unique empire. The buildings that followed the design of the Pantheon included libraries, city halls, learning institutions, as well as temples across Europe and the United States. Those, who visited Rome, especially after the accomplishment of the Pantheon, left with new ideas of strong and unique buildings that used vaults and arches in construction. No architect can stay indifferent towards the unique interior design and roofing forms of the Pantheon.