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Skin Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

The problem of skin cancer and the ways of its development, detection, and prevention have become the focus of much research in the recent years. The literature review was conducted on the basis of sources related to the issue of skin cancer and the role of both people and nurses in the process of problem resolution. The literature review focuses on the main aspects taken from eight scholarly sources and highlights the problems of skin cancer detection, prevention, and the need of an intervention in general. The problem of human health is a very important aspect in the modern medicine. The research proves that people do not pay required attention to personal health and address doctors only in case of serious problems. Jones (2015) has confirmed that even women with high risk of breast cancer development do not pay adequate attention to their health, being informed about limited treatment options and having high level of medical distrust. Knowledge deficit of the possibility of screening is also a serious problem (Jones, 2015). Therefore, the major purpose of the study can be supported by the literature review conducted below.

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Before analyzing the possible ways of detecting and preventing skin cancer development, it is important to understand the mode of behavior of people who prefer to lie in the sun, their possible knowledge, and the level of interest in issue prevention. Norton, Holloway, and Galvin (2014) have made an attempt to analyze the behavior of women aged 14?17 and the leading causes of their preference for sun tanning. The research has focused on the grounded theory method as it allows to understand the reasons of human behavior in a particular way. The choice of this age group is explained by partial independence from adults and the beginning of interest in personal bodies and appearances. Adolescents intentionally received sunbathing to get physical and psychological comfort, even at the expense of the possible risks of having skin cancer. This research is valuable in respect of having referred to international sample. Thus, women of different countries and nationalities risk their health for acquiring appearance they dream of. Hajdarevic, Schmitt?Egenolf, Brulin, Sundbom, and Hornsten (2011) investigated another aspect of the problem in their study ? gender relation.

While risking personal health intentionally, it is important to understand whether women realize the possible problems they might have with their skin. Skin cancer signs detection is an important factor in studying the role of nursing practitioners in dealing with the problem. Hajdarevic et al. (2011) have raised the issue of gender interest in this type of cancer. This research has confirmed that women are more preoccupied about the health of their skin, thus paying more attention to the condition of their bodies in comparison to men, who either seldom or never pay attention to skin issues, which may be related to cancer. However, this study has also highlighted that, despite the fact that women are interested in the changes of their skin, they do not seek for any medical care assistance in case some changes have been noticed. Having a low level of knowledge about the possible consequences, women do not usually think that changes in their skin may result in cancer, and therefore they do not search for medical care. The problem of low level of advice-seeking is explained by the high level of health information available online. In other words, young people prefer to check the Internet for recommendation and health care sources rather than receive professional advice. Moreover, distrusting sources and concerns about confidentiality are also barriers on the way to searching for required information. According to Batten and Dutton (2011), who have obtained these results, youths are more interested in seeking health advice in case they feel unwell. Similar statement has been provided by Hajdarevic et al. (2011), who have also noticed that women are seeking for professional health advice when they already have so many troubles that they cannot survive without health care professionals. Thus, women do not usually address professional nurses in case of having some signs of diseases, which are not considered important for them.

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Education conducted along with some biometric feedback can be a more effective strategy in preventing the possible development of skin cancer. Emmonss et al. (2011) have confirmed that education is more effective if additional practical examination is applied. Thus, having conducted a research on the beach with the involvement of four research groups, scholars have confirmed that people who received additional knowledge about the risks of skin cancer along with biometric feedback showed higher level of skin protection activity in comparison to those who were only informed about the risks. Moreover, a group which received skin examinations in addition to information and biometric feedback showed lower level of sunburns. This study proves that education about the possible development of skin cancer is important; however, intervention with practical recommendations carries greater interest and advantage for people.

 

Along with patients need in theoretical and practical intervention about the risks of skin cancer, Roebuck, Moran, MacDonald, Shumer, and McCune (2015) have confirmed that nursing practitioners also require practical implementation of received knowledge. Having reported about the low level of information related to skin cancer prevention and detection, nursing practitioners can increase this knowledge by means of more educational initiatives related to the problem under consideration (Roebuck et al. 2015). Thus, the proposed nurse practitioner, who led teaching program at the beach, aimed at improving sun protection by the use of sunscreen, sun protective gear, and avoidance of the sun as an effective contribution to nurse practitioners knowledge in the sphere of skin cancer. Another study which highlights the effectiveness of the teaching programs was conducted by Weyl et al. (2015). The scholars have confirmed the effectiveness of educational materials for people with the possible risk of cancer development. The current research has proved that people who received educational materials about the possible risks of cancer development were interested in additional screening. The study has confirmed that most of the Kentuckians are aware of the risks of cancer development. However, they seem to receive additional educational materials to have screening in order to prevent the development of cancer. Despite effective results obtained from the educational materials, it can be not enough for a significant reduction of skin cancer development. Learning the information, people are informed that they may be at risk, and they have one more reason to have some professional examination. However, it is not always effective. The current research has shown a low level of increase in health awareness after receiving information. Thus, stronger and more justified reasons are required to make people pay more attention to the possible development of skin cancer.

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