Health Promotions among Diverse Populations
The health promotions among diverse populations vary depending on the health status of the group and the inherent cultural, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical factors that affect their access to qualitative health care. These factors invariably influence the effectiveness of the designed interventions. This paper explores the health disparities that exist within the group with a special focus on the health status of a minority group on the instance of the African Americans. Additionally, the paper contemplates the most effective level of health promotion prevention that should be used to mitigate the disparity in health care for Non-Hispanic Blacks. The analysis indicates that in terms of the most major health conditions, African Americans bear a disproportionate burden of disease, injury, death, and disability as compared with other ethnic or racial groups. Primary prevention intervention is the most appropriate health promotion approach as it will eliminate or at least reduce the factors that exacerbate the disparities in health status.
A review of the current health status of African Americans shows that the group is faring worse as compared with the other racial groups and the national average. Most of the indicators of health show that African Americans, as a minority group, have adverse health outcomes as compared with the rest of the populations including the Hispanics. For instance, 13.5% of African Americans people of all ages are of fair or poor health; the national average stands at 10.5%. Apart from being one of the minority groups with one of the biggest incidences of diseases, African Americans are also considerably under-insured. For instance, in 2014, about 13% of African American persons aged under 65 years did not have any form of health insurance coverage; the then national average was at 12.5%. Other vital health indicators are also below the national average. The mortality rate for African Americans, for instance, averages 735.4 deaths per 100,000, with the national average fluctuating at around 600. Evidently, African Americans enjoy an inferior health status as compared with the rest of the population.
Health promotion is essentially the process of enabling people to achieve or enhance control over their health. The African Americans define health promotion from a historical perspective that is opposed to the contemporary one. This is largely due to the cultural, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical barriers that still subsist and adversely affect their access to health care. Health promotion among African Americans, therefore, encompasses health education and other basic health interventions aimed at improving health. Given the enhanced prevalence of ailments such as heart disease, cancer, and stroke, the focus of most African Americans is merely on achieving the absence of disease. Appropriating the contemporary perspective, the focus of the health promotion would have been not only to eradicate diseases but also to achieve a sense of security and general well-being of an individual.
The cultural, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical barriers that exist have amplified the health disparities for the African Americans, henceforth described as Non-Hispanic Blacks. African Americans have a lower socioeconomic status as compared with the Whites. The reduced access to socioeconomic resources exacerbates the differences in morbidity. They also acquire less education, which means that they are more likely to suffer from preventable diseases and experience loss of functioning as compared to racial groups that receive better education. These differences in socioeconomic and sociopolitical status are accumulated via childhood circumstances, educational experiences, and neighborhood conditions among others to finally influence the attitude towards and access to health care interventions. Ultimately, these differences create and magnify the health disparities among the different racial and ethnic groups.
While the Non-Hispanic Blacks constitute only 13% of the total population of the U.S., there is a disproportionate burden of health conditions, especially with regards to heart diseases, cancer, and stroke. Although these top three death causes are similar among Non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites, the rates of morbidity, mortality and incidence lean heavily in favor of Non-Hispanic Whites. For instance, in 2014, the prevalence of stroke among the Non-Hispanic Blacks is thrice that of Non-Hispanic Whites. The incidence of perinatal diseases among the Non-Hispanic Blacks was also thrice that of Non-Hispanic Whites in 2010. Additionally, an African American is 30% likelier to have diabetes than a Non-Hispanic Whites. What is especially confounding and aptly demonstrates the existing health disparities is that three out of 10 leading death causes for the discussed minority group are not even amongst the top 10 reasons of deaths for the rest of the U.S. citizens. These include homicide, HIV/AIDS, and septicemia. In fact, there is an even greater disparity when it comes to homicide. The Non-Hispanic Blacks are nine times likelier to be killed, indicating that they have lower living rates compared to their White counterparts.
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Level of Health Promotion Prevention
Health promotion prevention can be appropriated at three different stages: the primary, secondary, and tertiary stages. The appropriateness of the interventions depends on the prevailing factors that cause the disparity in health care. Primary prevention strategies limit the incidence of disease and disability in the identified population through the reduction of factors that compromise good health, and instead, the promotion of factors that are protective of health prevails. Secondary prevention strategies primarily seek to prevent the progression of disease through detection and medical intervention, while tertiary prevention strategies aim to mitigate the consequences of an identified disease to improve the quality of life of an individual. Given the socioeconomic, cultural, sociopolitical, and other unique needs of the Non-Hispanic Blacks, primary prevention is likely to be the most effective. Eliminating the existential disparities in health will require culturally-appropriate public health initiatives, community support programs, and equitable access to care. Through primary interventions that promote access to immunization programs, healthy eating, and smoking cessation programs among others, the disproportionate health status of the Non-Hispanic Blacks can be addressed.
In conclusion, it is evident that despite constituting almost 13% of the total population of the U.S., Non-Hispanic Blacks have a disproportionate burden of disease, death, and disability as compared with the rest of the population, especially Non-Hispanic Whites. There are many health disparities that exist for this group with the Non-Hispanic Blacks being overrepresented even in the top three leading causes of death in the U.S. To aptly address these disparities, primary health promotion prevention strategies that aim at limiting the prevalence of the diseases and health conditions should be appropriated.