The Novel During the Apartheid Era
In spite of the fact that there were many lines of continuity that came along with the segregation era, there was a distinction of the apartheid policies by the introduction of certain elements that triggered the entire nature of racial discrimination. It was in the year 1948 when the National Party (NP) won national elections under the entire slogan of apartheid. This was a platform of both racism as well as segregation. In this case, apartheid used to build on the early laws despite the fact that it made segregation to become rigid, as well as brought increased reinforcement to the same. The result was that the apartheid failed to react effectively as well as adequately to the concerns led to intermittent civic along with labor unrest, erupting after the Second World War. Throughout the 1950s, there was notable unrest for the Africans, the colored as well as the escalation of the Indian communities since they became determined and frequent in Africa. The National Party was able to face the Suppression of the Communism Act in the year 1950 that was to assume increased combative pressure on racism (Butler, 1998). The campaign united the Africans and Indians, as well as the colored against racism and this was a direct reaction by liberation movements to all the unjust laws that had been earlier passed by the existing government. Most Whites also joined in the campaign and supported Africans, colored and Indians.
With the strong enactment of laws of apartheid in the year 1948, the term ‘racial discrimination’ became strongly institutionalized. In this case, race laws were attached to all the aspects of social life. These laws touched the illegalization of marriage that could happen between the whites and the non-whites, as well as sanctioning of the jobs for the whites. It was in 1950 that the Population registration Act demanded that all the people from South Africa be categorized according to their races. The colored group consisted of the major groupings of both Asians and Indians. This was based on their appearance and descent, along with their social acceptance. In this case, the determination that an individual could be considering white could consider habits, speech, education and deportment. Any signs of incompliant to the racial laws were heavily punished (Greenberg, 1987). All the blacks were later forced to hold pass books that revealed their fingerprints, information of their access and photos.
It was also in the year 1951 that the Bantu Authorities Act formed the foundation of ethnic government in reserves formed by Africans, referred to as homelands. The homelands operated independently as states that the Africans were able to be assigned according to their origin that was mostly inaccurate. In this case, all the political freedom and rights that were with the Africans became restricted and designated to their homeland. The entire concept was that they could be citizens in the homeland, hence losing the South African citizenship as well as all the rights of being involved in the parliamentary practices of South Africa that held final hegemony above the homelands. It was between 1976 and 1981 that four of the famous homelands emerged hence being able to denationalize a population of 9 million in South Africa. Most importantly, the administrators in the homeland filed the nominal independence, hence maintaining the force for political rights in the nation. However, Africans who lived in the homelands required passports in order to enter South Africa that they became aliens in their nation (Greenberg, 1987). This was coming to an end as Africans joined together to fight against apartheid through a journey towards freedom.
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Furthermore, the Public Safety Act along with the Criminal Law Amendment became part of the law in 1953. The two gave power to the existing government in South Africa in order to declare strict states of emergency as well as strong penalties in order to protect against or even support the law repeal (Butler, 1998). Such penalties included the famous fines, whippings altogether with forceful imprisonment. In addition, a big group of blacks refused to move with the passes from Sharpeville, hence forcing the government to declare a state of emergency. In this case, the entire state of emergency took 156 days and left 69 individuals dead, along with 187 individuals wounded. It is vital to note that wielding the Criminal Law as well as the Public Safety Act did not mean that the white regime had a strong intention to alter the existing unjust laws introduced by the National Party under the apartheid. The journey seems like a novel since the enactment of apartheid laws that brought separation among the existing communities.
Apartheid experienced internal resistance from whites, Africans, colored and Indians. Programs were created in the year 1949 that aimed at recruiting militants into their protects, including the active boycott, non co-operation, strikes and civil disobedience that forced the need to bring together the African employees into unions. There was also the defiance campaign in the year 1952 that received support from many people that demonstrated war against apartheid. However, more than 8,500 people that demonstrated against apartheid ended up in prisons, since they failed to follow what the government offered. Most importantly, the labor Unions formed a non-racial federation in the year 1955 that was allied with other non-racial unions in order to fight apartheid. Several African nationalists were keen in emphasizing complete independence of all Africans as well as Pan-Africanism (Deegan, 2001). They objected to engagement of the communists in Congress Alliance. Moreover, there was the introduction of the Freedom Charter in 1955 that incorporated several stringent rules that could fight against apartheid in South Africa. The charter contained the demands of land reforms, economic opportunities and educational reforms that were strongly articulated in order to represent radical socialist opinions. In this case, the apartheid government faced peaceful protects along with violent repressions. Detentions, harassments and banning of major liberation movements became the order of the day.
According to Heather, apartheid was brought to an end by pressures from inside the nation. In this case, Heather states that members of the South African government started to have many doubts concerning the system of government under apartheid. These were new minds that wanted devolution of their political system. The change could only start with them and in them. Many parties opposing the apartheid system began to emerge and to grow strongly as early as 1970s. This was to be a new South Africa through widespread oppositions, consisting of both the White South Africans and the black South Africans. It was to be leadership under a new government that did not care much about color and race. People were to be united against apartheid system (Deegan, 2001). Deegan believed that the new system of government introduced in South Africa led to the end of Apartheid. Moreover, Deegan tried to indicate that the end of apartheid emerged from the fact that South Africa was ready for a new type of leadership. He described information about the transfer of power in the year 1994, political realignment, socio-economic transition as well as post-electoral time of adjustment from apartheid. Most importantly, this was accompanied by findings of Truth and Reconciliation Commission along with elections of 1999. In other words, the end of apartheid has been associated with complete and viable strategies by leaders and security personnel, vigilant teams and low intensity welfare. Moreover, it was enabled by the emergence of De Klerk’s reforms and international elements and a rigid question towards reform (Deegan, 2001). The country was able to return to negotiations under leadership of Nelson Mandela and this led to a complete bend of apartheid.
In conclusion, the National Party faced a mystery in its efforts to implement stringent laws of apartheid after it took control in 1948. It was able to introduce oppressive laws that escalated racism in the region. However, it faced major challenges through different campaigns by Africans, coloreds, several Whites and Indians in South Africa. This became intensive through various efforts to terminate the era of apartheid in the region. The people had declared war against apartheid and formed various movements that promised success.