Factors of Migration with Regard to Latin American Region and Europe
Migration processes of different nature and quality have undergone an unprecedented scale modification. By the end of the previous century, pre-existing types of migration widened due to emergence of its qualitatively new kinds. The matter of migration along with problems of its regulation became the subject of heated political debates within the entire world. The question of movement of foreign nationals to permanently reside in a different country has determined the relevance of a comprehensive study of the burning issue. It is considered to be one of the most important problems of population, which could not be merely defined as a simple mechanical movement of people but a complex process that affects many aspects of both social and economic life. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to identify key reasons that trigger migration processes in Latin America and Europe as well as to analyze management strategies that are applied by authorities in order to foster integration and stabilize the crisis.
There are various causes of migration such as religious motives; political, family, demographic, and national grounds; natural disasters and wars. The following kinds of migration are distinguished on the basis of public orientation and societal aspects: economic, social, cultural, political, military, etc. However, the main cause of migration remains to be the economic one, namely, substantial differences in wages and living standards. Along with economic reasons, external migration may also be politically motivated. For example, after General Pinochet came to power in Chile, more than 1 million people left the country within short period of time either because they feared to obey his potential regulations or merely as a protest.
At the end of the XX – beginning of XXI centuries the US economy led to a significant increase in the demand for unskilled cheap labor from Latin America, hired by employers both legally and illegally. It caused the increase in lawful as well as unauthorized immigration of Mexicans and other Hispanics to the United States. Currently, according to Cabieses, et al, “Between 20–60% of their [immigrants’] income is remitted to their countries of origin, supporting the basic needs of the family they left behind” (402).
A very important issue for the American society now is the legalization and naturalization of illegal immigrants and their further integration. However, even a slight reduction of legal migration flows does not lead to its decline. On the contrary, they will grow at the expense of illegal immigration from Latin America. According to the researchers, “There are a considerable number of Latin Americans living outside their countries of birth: it is estimated that at least 4% of the region’s population lives in extra-regional countries and that this figure accounts for approximately 13% of international migrants worldwide” (Courtis and Pacecca 24).
Since 2008, the number of people trying to enter the EU mainly from Africa and the Middle East, seriously increased. The reasons for such growth of migration flows encompass such aspects as economic crisis taking place all over the world as well as ensuing decline in living standards within developing countries. In fact, at the present time, Europe is also suffering from world markets’ turmoil. As a result, the tide of migrants in these conditions is not only disturbing but also causes a number of social tensions among public and authorities (Coleman 377).
With regard to migration taking place directly on European continent, any resident of the European Union, as a rule, has the right to work in any other European country as well as permission to apply for social assistance and receive medical care. Such freedom of movement spurred the inflow of economic migrants from relatively new EU member countries, such as Croatia, Romania, and Poland, to more economically stable states, such as Germany and the UK, to name a few.
Other kinds of migrants are people, who are considered to be in danger within their country of origin, and, for this reason, forced to flee and apply for a permission to legally reside in another country. In most cases, refugees are not allowed to work in the country, which has granted asylum, during the period of case analysis, and, as a consequence, are compelled to live on unemployment benefits. Therefore, one could differentiate two types of displaced persons: for example, the Albanians, on the one side, who are economic migrants that usually flee their motherland in search of better life, and the Syrians, on the other hand, who are regarded as typical refugees, who leave in order to escape war. However, such division is rather blurred and incomprehensive. Some people, for example, migrate from the war-torn country for economic reasons. Nevertheless, even in such cases, economic deprivation is largely a consequence of either a certain conflict or collapse of trade channels and institutions.
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Lack of charitable assistance is another factor of migration outbreak. The humanitarian crisis in the Middle East and North Africa led to the fact that hundreds of thousands of refugees were forced to move to the European Union. The EU countries’ authorities, in their turn, have no common position towards control measures of the influx of refugees resulting in destabilization of immigration process and delay in steady integration. In other words, not all the countries of the EU are ready to accept new citizens because local population could be afraid of refugees, whom they consider to be a negative influence on society in general In fact, the fear is one of the crucial aspects host country is currently facing. To be precise, the question of employment has been widely discussed within all the countries receiving immigrants. Although the EU possesses laws that prevent refugees from entering its territories, appliance of measures would not work practically. Before Brexit event, former Prime Minister of the UK, David Cameron, said that the current refugee crisis in Europe would not be solved by providing them asylum in the UK. Germany, however, in recent months, has taken the largest part of displaced persons. At the same time, the Chancellor of Germany called on other EU member states to join this strategy for the reason that, according to the researchers, “Maximization of the impact of migration on development depends crucially on the implementation of sound immigration policies in receiving economies” (Wouterse 2428).
In recent decades, the migration policy of Western countries has been characterized by a focus on the use of an integrated approach to close coordination of its various directions. All things considered, such strategy could be an integral part of problem-solving process concerning unexpected influx of immigrants. In particular, such aspect as hospitable reception of displaced persons fosters steady immigration process; adaptation, integration, and maintenance of inter-ethnic relations in society eliminate prejudices and spread diversity; adoption of external measures, in its turn, controls and prevents unwanted migration flows. In fact, in the light of threat of international terrorism, the priority is given to immigration control, with the help of which authorities to filter migrants by analyzing their prior intentions, taking into account national security requirements and sharp tightening of the fight against illegal immigration. There is, however, another solution to the problem: a special military operation in Libya may stop the influx of refugees. Therefore, military actions may take place both in the Mediterranean region and along the coast of Libya until the influx of migrants would be exhausted.
The problem of migration affects not only the interests of individual states but also international community as a whole. The degree of participation of countries in international exchange of labor is different and depends mainly on basic economic parameters of development in modern conditions. The problem of mass labor migration does not only bring new nuances in the policy of the states, but also alters to be a complex issue that requires balance with regard to such factors as economy, commitment to democratic principles of society, protection of the interests of indigenous people, and ensuring workers’ rights. Moreover, due to increase of military operations and economic upheavals, the problem of migration is burning not only for the European Union but also for other developed countries in the world.