The article deals with the rise of Egypt from 1900’s to the current period. It implicates quite a lot of factors that cause deterioration. These factors comprise of demography, currency predicaments, and insecurity concerns instigated by wars. The article also deals with the bearing of Western political and collective currents, starring the role of the European colonial empires and dictatorship in Egypt. Intricately, it extinguishes the causes of transformation and revolution in Egypt.
Causes of Deterioration
- There has been a perpetual demographic evolution in Egypt from the 19th century to present. The populace size has doubled over the course of 80 years. From the 19th century, the growth rates have hastened and on the other side increased the population to inordinate rates. It has evidently been indicated by the populace information gathering.
- Presently, the population matters are of the highest priority in Egypt. For instance, in 2008, there was held a large National Population Conference, which united diverse members of parliament and government to institute a multi-sectorial exchange of ideas and further advance population matters.
- In relation to high resident’s rates in Egypt, the public spending on social amenities remains moderately truncated. The Egyptian government spends much on such services as education, groundwork, security and so on.
- From a negative perspective, poverty of the population makes development and progression a problematic process. Poverty is a vice that makes it impossible for a large number of the population to earn a standard of living due to overstretching of scarce resources.
Economy (Currency Crises)
- The workforce is not involved in the kind of work that is rewarded accordingly. A great number of workforces are affianced in recurrent, irregular or provisional employment. These kinds of engagements contribute to the low standard of living among the population. Unfortunately, part of the population may participate in illegal activities for their benefit without considering social order and responsibility
- Currency crises have destructively affected the economy of Egypt. As a result, the government’s Gross Domestic Growth is undesirably affected by such factors as decelerating fertility rate and unmet national dues.
- Penetration of European commerce in the Middle East adversely predisposed the local industries. These caused economic strain to the indigenous trades because the industrial products submerged the region. These merchandises comprised of the cheap fabrics and metallic imports which transformed the pattern of consumption in Egypt.
- In the Middle East, marketable agricultural production was reliant on the burdens of the European market. Henceforth it was exposed to price rise and fall determined by European prerequisites and perceptions.
- Inopportunely, Middle East became a reliable state, a provider of raw cultivated materials, and an end user of European industrial goods. From several illustrations it is evident that the economy of Egypt was principally prejudiced by Europe.
Security (Wars and more Wars)
- During the late 18th Century, Egypt was faced by insecurity that was highly backed by the collective internal warfare among the Mamluk factions and their heavy-handed tax programs.
- Also, the disintegration of Mamluk system prohibited the advancement of any unchanging central authority. The title role of the central authority is to bring together and standardize the management of the country’s resources.
- In the end of the 19th century, Muhammad Ali refurbished the governing structures of Egypt. Muhammad Ali reinforced the Territorial Army and fleet to deal with matters of insecurity in Egypt. The Ottoman kingdom was liable to fortified security in the area.
- After the independence of Egypt, the refuge of stately communications was still conserved by the British rule. The British administration defended Egypt against foreign violent behavior and also shielded the remote smaller groups in Egypt.
Role of the European Colonial Empires
- The European expatriate territories in Egypt added to improved expenditures and the loss of home-grown market to European merchants. In due course, this led to economic failure and British expatriation of Egypt.
- Similarly, the European-style alterations industrially progressed in the late 19th Century but were resisted by reformist movements. These reformist movements include the Wahhabi, the Sanusi, and the Mahdiyyah. Reasonably, due to the employment problems in Egypt, the Europeans were cast out by crusaders from the Eastern Mediterranean. For instance, the Ottoman Empire and the Middle Eastern power were both European. The Ottomans added new European realms to the dominions of Islam and protracted their decree to the Arab parcels where the Islam had patented. The Ottoman merchants benefited from the increased exchange of Ottoman raw materials for European manufactured products. But it led to a decline in state revenues and shortage of raw materials for domestic consumption.
- The empire went through inflation because of the high costs of scarce materials. In the end, the state was not in a position to acquire appropriate proceeds to meet its expenditures.
- The associations that reinforced the Ottoman system, particularly the armed forces, were destabilized.
The Influence of Western Political and Social Currents
- The western political and social currents prejudiced the view of Egyptians on their homemade politics and social matters. There was a diversion of attention to Western social currents rather than Egyptian social currents.
- The Western legislations made the Middle East states dependent on Western defense, political assistance, and support. The Arab political leaders commanded liberation and practiced the Western politics to accomplish their objectives.
- The British persistently interfered with Egyptian politics and eventually it interfered with the reliability of the legislative scheme. The political paralysis lasted until the revolution of 1952.
Dictatorship in Egypt
- Egyptian kings used the dictatorship means of leadership that led to a negative effect on the economy, development, revolution and political progression. For instance, Nasser used his dictatorship practices to avoid participation in West-sponsored defense pacts.
- Dictatorship withdrew the citizen’s contribution to leadership and curtailed the right of expression of the citizens. Even though the residents expressed dissatisfaction with his regime, Nasser remained in power.
The Causes for Reform and Change
Introduction of Mass Media and State of Literacy
- The Nasser’s Egypt government was enthusiastic in the substantial consideration of the development of education. Its goal was to boost literacy and render to schoolchildren, at the primary and secondary levels in the form of a proper indoctrination in the basics of socialism and nationalism. Impressively, the advances in education increased from 1.3 million in the year 1953 to 3.6 million in the year 1970.
- The government in turn built more schools because the rate of enrollment improved. Construction of more schools reduced the problem of congested classrooms and the uncomplimentary student-teacher ratios.
- Moreover, the government educated instructors so as to offer quality delivery to the pupils and students. The training helps the instructors learn more about the curriculum planning, administrative planning, and specialization and organization skills. Education should hence cater for all needs of the pupils and students.
- The government also eliminated instruction fees at postsecondary institutions to motivate and encourage students to join the university and hence obtain the expertise required to improve a state-owned economy.
- Through the Nasser’s proclamation of 1962, the government presented an encouragement to assure a government job for ex-students in every institution of higher education. In return, the university students entry number doubled during the 1960s.
- There was improvement of government press. Through the periodic press, the Egyptians expressed their opinions. It allowed for reproducing of the interpreted materials and printing of government decrees for distribution.
- The free press made it possible to air different dogmatic views. The daily newspapers, namely al-Muqattam and al-Ahram, monthly magazine known as The Crescent and other leading journals of the Cromer era, addressed the question of Egypt’s relationship with Britain.
- The press was also a forum for the proliferation of ideas on the major cultural and social issues of the era. It was a forum used by Islamic reformers, supporters of parliamentary democracy, Christian secularists and the reformers of al-Azhar that allowed to voice their views.
Role of Recent Globalization of Information and News/ Views via the Internet
- The contemporary globalization of information and update has provided access to indispensable newspapers initiating in the Middle East, for example, the al Ahram from Egypt, through the use of internet.
- Globalization has also increased awareness among the Egyptians because information became more accessible and available to all.
- It also created jobs to information technology experts and reduced the cases of unemployment among the university students.
The Triggers of the Recent Arab Spring
Among the native Arab population, Arab Spring is also known as the Arab Revolution, Uprising or Revolt
- The recent Arab Spring, added with colonial economic hardships and low standards of living as a result of the increase in population on limited land.
- Secondly, active Islamic opposition groups have also backed the recent Arab spring. The Islamic groups have rallied their supporters against the governing structures. The arrest of opposition leaders and the rise of dictators in the region have only succeeded in angering the radical Islamists who have embarked upon the mission to topple the government.
- Mass media have also contributed to Arab Spring through the spread of violence related information that caused more pain to the affected people. Such information makes the responsible victims feel recognized and hence do much harm.
The Function of the United States and the West in this Change and what are They were Looking for from the Results of These Changes
- In 1991, during the Gulf War, the United States supported the upholding of the Egypt’s economy. At this period, the Egypt’s productive capacity was stumpy, and its economy was incapable to compete in an increasingly globalized marketplace. There was an increase of unemployment associated with declined real wages. Also, the United States canceled $7 billion military debts borne by Egypt. The United States and the West participated in the changes that rose in Egypt to preserve economic stability through the sustained involvement in the states.
- The Westerns are looking for any prospect of the need so that they can back the states demanding assistance to sustain the unrelenting relation. These countries will provide a market for Western products, and the Westerns will be able to obtain raw materials from these countries. The countries will improve dependence on imported labor.
- The civil associations with Western nations would lessen the need for a strong national army. It will create a welfare state and dependence on Western industrial powers.
- The United States and the West are involved in peacekeeping efforts. It has resulted in estrangement of Egypt from the rest of Arab world.
- The United States and the West have also prejudiced the Egyptians in secularizing, privatization, and deregulation of Egyptian budget and administration.
In conclusion, the above causes of deterioration have given the direction on how reforms and changes developed in Egypt from 19th century to present.