Purpose of the Study
This study analyses the level of involvement and entertainment that adventure and non-adventure seekers experience using layer. Similarly, an examination of the general attitude towards layer and media in general will also be conducted.
The importance of this study is premised on the need to understand and appreciate the impact of new technological developments in the tourism industry for the players in the industry to be able to adapt adequately to these changes. Indeed, the tourism market is changing at an increasingly fast pace due to the technological developments that have been taking place recently. These developments have resulted in the emerging concept of adventure seekers in the tourism industry. This is a rather new concept, and it is largely premised on the emerging technological concepts in the media industry. Adventure traveling changes the travel industry as well as the tourism sector as it has been known for centuries.
Defining adventure seekers has been traditionally centered on the aspect of recreation. While this definition captures the essence of adventure seekers, it does not fully define the aspect of adventure tourism. Indeed, in defining adventure seekers, it is impossible to separate them from the aspect of tourism. Adventure traveling forms part of an emerging tourism sector that focuses risk and adventure in the process of touring the world. Therefore, adventure seekers are those tourists who engage in the quest of insight and knowledge by undertaking what others would deem as risky activities in their travels around the world. Thus, they travel around the world, exploring the hidden mysteries and deriving the thrill of engaging in activities that are deemed as dangerous. These activities include rock climbing, deep-sea diving, hung cladding, mountain biking, yachting, surfing, and jet boat diving, among others. Non-adventure seekers, on the other hand, include those tourists who prefer to engage in more traditional in the activities that they engage in while touring the world. They are characterized by expensive lifestyles as they book expensive hotels and are driven around the country, visiting different tourist sites and places of interest.
The General Attitude
In order to understand the driving force behind adventure seekers, it is important to understand their general attitude when it comes to adventure tourism as compared to the attitude of non-adventure seekers. Understanding the general attitude of adventure seekers requires an understanding that adventure tourism involves or rather requires the tourists to visit an area or a given region, which is affected by the least human impact possible and which is characterized as being risky. Therefore, the tourists are required to engage in risky sports that demand physical effort, relatively high performance, and greater risk taking. It is an adventure seeker who will go looking for an area in order to try out the risky activities while exploring the world. In addition, the general attitude of an adventure seeker is developed over time in relation to the experiences that he or she has undergone. This is similarly true for a non-adventure seeker, whose attitude is also affected by their experiences (Murphy, Frank, Moran & Patnoe-Woodley 2011, p. 100-175).
To determine such an attitude, the element of consistency over a given period of time is important given the fact that adventure seekers engage in activities that have a defining impact on their behavior. This is largely caused by the fact that they are emotionally and physically demanding and require a strong personality to be able to undertake them. The likelihood of disappointments and injuries is very high and as such, the impact of an individual’s behavior will automatically result in the change of this individual’s perception towards a given issue and effectively change their behavior and thereby changing the general attitude. The lack of consistency between the attitude of adventure seekers and non-adventure seekers and their behaviors is an inconclusive consequence of adventure tourism, and the same cannot be used to understand the general attitude of such individuals.
The attitude of adventure seekers as well as that of non-adventure seekers is normally created and developed over a given period of time through the experiences that the two groups go through in the process of adventure tourism. Such experiences influence the perception of the individual, resulting in a behavior change. The change in behavior is followed by the change in attitude of the individual towards a given activity or event. Consequently, the importance of experience determines the general attitude of adventure seekers as well as non-adventure seekers, and it is important in order to understand the cause of certain attitudes. It is not easy to change human behavior, but certain events that a human being goes through automatically influence their behavior. Adventure tourism provides some of those chilling events that demand so much from an individual so that the impact on the general attitude of that person is evident. Individuals become non-adventure because of the experiences that they found not exciting and, therefore, they would not like to go through them again. Thus, their general attitude is negative and consistent with their behavior, which, in most cases, is characterized by a laid-back attitude that finds very few things to be exciting. Therefore, such individuals do not overindulge in things that they consider ‘dangerous’ and risky. They prefer the safer routes; they follow the guidelines, and they are afraid of strange or new things (Kelley & Kelley 2013, p. 67-102). They are the exact opposite of the adventure seekers, who would rather discover new routes, meet new people, try out new ideas, and undertake somewhat dangerous activities.
Adventure tourism is a more demanding form of tourism that requires compete participation of the individual tourist. In adventure tourism, three basic elements are important in determining the level of involvement of a given tourist. First, there is the aspect of interaction with the nature. In determining the level, at which an individual will be involved or interested in interacting with the nature, the question of the importance of such interaction will be crucial. Secondly, there is the aspect of interaction with the culture in the given region or area. This will be determined by assessing the values and interest of such an interaction with the given culture. Thirdly, there is the aspect of physical activity that the given event demands, which is dependent on the need for the given activity. Consequently, the needs, importance, interests, and values are the main definitive elements that change human particular experiences, leading to the involvement level with the activity in question. This is to say that, if an adventure seeker finds the said activity interesting enough, the level of involvement will be significant. However, where the said activity is not interesting enough, an adventure seeker will assess its importance or the need for that activity and the value that the event adds to them (Scho?nbach 1981, p. 150-175). In reaching such determinations, the three aspects of interaction with nature, interaction with the culture, and the physical demands of the activity play a central role in the level of involvement.
Therefore, an event or activity must be placed in such a position that it attracts considerable interest and attention from an individual in order to warrant a definite involvement. The level of involvement of an adventure seeker is based primarily on the question of interest and attraction to the said activity. It is for this reason that all the activities that are associated with adventure tourism are the kind that attracts a lot of interest. Activities such as deep-sea diving, boat diving, hiking, mountain biking, and sky diving are all very interesting adventure activities that are most likely to attract the attention of the tourists. Adventure seekers are most likely to be involved in these activities. However, on the other hand, non-adventure seekers determine the level of their involvement in an activity based on the importance of that activity as well as the values that are most likely going to gain from the activity. This is a rather precautious way of viewing things in the sense; the importance of an activity requires a careful analysis of many factors, in which case a person is most likely going to end up deciding against that activity (Suruchi 2002, p. 96-126).
The media represents one of the most developed industries commanding a global audience across every corner of the world. Media entertainment in relation to adventure tourism is a complex subject that demands a careful analysis of the issues involved. A key component of the tourism industry is attractions, giving the visitor the opportunity to explore the sights, facilities, and wonders of the area. The development of the media entertainment has facilitated access to these sights and wonders by helping preparation for the given trips. The use of the media in adventure tourism is meant to provide the prospective tourists with a chance to identify the areas that they might want to visit. Such areas as ski hills, historic and trekking sites, deep-oceans, etc. are displayed on a media platform, which is accessible to the tourists (Spalding & Brown 2007, p. 68-104).
The media and entertainment are used by two distinct type of users who are characterized by their responses to the media content. These can be viewed in two dimensions. Firstly, it is the pleasure seeking aspect, which describes those types of media users who mostly use the program to uplift their moods through the selection of appropriate contents as provided by the entertainment media. This can define the category of adventure seekers who seek out a program based on the fact that such a program uplifts their spirits and moods.
Secondly, there is the aspect of appreciation of a program, film, recording, or game that refer to a more critical aspect of enjoyment, which includes cognitive and effective elaborations. These are non-adventure seekers. They mainly select a program based on the value that a given program or the content of the given program will add to their lives. They want to appreciate the program and understand what it is about in order to gain satisfaction from it. This means that they will dedicate their time, resources, and strength in media and entertainment for the sake of gaining an understanding, which such programs, recordings, or films add to their lives.
The distinction between the two categories of media users is based on the value that they place on a given program, film, recording, or game provided by a media outlet. In the case of an adventure seeker, the value of the said program or recording is premised on the ability of that program to uplift their moods and in the case where this is not possible, such a program is not valuable and, therefore, it does not result in pleasure (Wittenbrink & Schwarz 1997, p. 152-204). On the other hand, non-adventure seeker places a cognitive kind of value on a given program or recording.
Having studied the general attitudes, the level of involvement and media entertainment of the two groups, the next important point of analysis is the overall managerial implications of the results of the study. From the above-mentioned results, the first implication relates to the goal of the designer in as far having the needs of the customer in mind is concerned. A good designer of a media application, in this case, Layer, must always ensure that the design is able to enhance the experiences of the users. As stated above, experience is a critical component that shapes the very essential attributes of an individual. For instance, through experience, the behavior of an individual is shaped, which is then reflected in the attitude, level of involvement, and entertainment of the user. Therefore, a designer must identify a way of improving and enhancing the experience of the user, for example, through the additional of extra functional capabilities to the system. This will allow the users to make use of the extra capabilities of the application and, thereby, enhancing their experience that, in turn, will increase their level of involvement, improve their attitudes, and enhance their entertainment. Similarly, the designer can make it easier by invoking the already existing functions (Catmull & Wallace 2014, pg 103-115).
The second managerial implication relates to the experiences that the two groups had in the cause of the study. In the case of the adventure seekers, they had a more fulfilling and pleasant experience during the study. This was caused by the overall positive attitude that adventure seekers had towards Layer. In the case of non-adventure seekers, their attitude affected the experience they had in using the technology. It is therefore important that the designer must be able to attract more customers through the design of his project. This could be achieved through the inclusion of information and functions that can be accessed by non-adventure seekers. This will have the resultant effect of getting to more individuals and attracting a positive response from them. The need to access a larger market is crucial to success of the technology and, therefore, the designer must ensure that both sects of participants can identify with the technology and relate with it.
In conducting a research of this nature, many factors crop up that require a careful analysis in order to arrive at factual conclusions. The accuracy of findings depends on the data collected. This data should be presented in such a manner that both its size and reliability render the information accurate. In the process of conducting this research, the main limiting factor was the availability of large amount of data that was reliable necessary to establish a significant relationship between the tested concept and the selected groups. Human relationships are dynamic and, in order to be able to arrive at a conclusion regarding this relationship towards a given concept, a lot of information is required. It is this information that will be used to establish the relevant factors that influence the varying human conduct as directed towards the technology. In this research, the data collected was not large enough to establish a clear relationship.
The second limitation relates to the research methodology adopted for this particular research. Selecting an appropriate research methodology is central to the accuracy of findings of the research. Where a wrong research methodology is used, the accuracy and reliability of findings of the research become very much questionable. In the case of this research, the manner, in which the data to the study was collected, inhibited the comprehensive analysis of the results because data was gathered through the observation of experiences of both adventure seekers and non-adventure seekers in order to arrive at the given results. This kind of data collection usually acts as an inhibiting factor in the thorough analysis of the results (Oskamp & Schultz 2005 pg. 45-76).
These are based on the results of the research and provide a suggestion of areas that must be improved and the steps that must be taken in conducting the research. Having identified the main limitation of the study, the first recommendation will relate to the group that takes part in the study. The researcher must specify the groups of the individuals who will take part in answering the questionnaire. The specific attributes of such a group of people must be carefully identified and aligned to the objectives of the research. The need to identify a specific group is meant to help in the obtaining of more reliable and accurate results.
Secondly, the method of research selected allows for a comprehensive analysis of the results in order to provide appropriate answers to the research questions. As stated above, selecting a research methodology that inhibits the analysis of the results is detrimental to the veracity of the research (Bohner & W?nke 2002. pg 56-75).
Thirdly, in the case of this research, there is need to involve a larger sample of a wide of media. The downside of using only one media in a research is that it creates a tendency for the participants to give repetitive answers. This has the impact of affecting the attitude of the participants who become bored and, thus, not valuing the importance of the research. This has an effect on the accuracy of the research.