The aim of the current paper is to identify the severity of climate change and the type of action that must be taken to address the reality of climate changes on the planet. In recent years, the concern of the global community over the changes of the Earth's climate has been on the increase. An important aspect of this change is the growth of the average temperature of the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere, which can have adverse effects on natural ecosystems and humans. Climate changes create diverse and global in nature health risks from increased threat of extreme weather events to alterations in the infectious disease dynamics. The prevention of global warming requires concerted efforts of all countries. One of the most obvious and effective solution to the problem of global warming includes the rational use of energy and the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions.
The ecology is based on the behavior of every human, so it is important to start with oneself. Everyone can contribute to the protection of the environment by sorting the trash, engaging in ennoblement of the city, saving fuel and water, reducing power consumption, and so on. If everyone does it, there will be a big shift in the climate conditions from global warming. Everyone should realize the opportunity and the need to do a good deed every minute.
In recent years, the global community is increasingly concerned about the changes in the Earth's climate. An important thing in this change deals with the growth of the average temperature of the Earth’s surface layer and the atmosphere, which can have adverse effects on natural ecosystems and humans. A climate change is vacillation between climate parameters of Earth's atmosphere in general or its individual regions over time. The climate change is studied by such sciences as climatology and paleoclimatology. Recently, the term climate change has been used generally (especially in the context of environmental policy) to indicate changes in modern climate. It can be said without an exaggeration that the problem of global warming becomes one of the most important problems of humanity survival. There are various attempts of fighting this problem. Thus, the Kyoto protocol, which imposes limits on emissions of carbon dioxide and other gases, was negotiated by 140 nations in 1997 (Purdy, 2005). It was the first attempt of reducing CO2 emissions. Climate change creates diverse and global in nature health risks from heightened threat of extreme weather events to alterations in the infectious disease dynamics. Preventing global warming requires concerted efforts of all countries. One of the most obvious and effective solution to the problem of global warming includes the rational use of energy and the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions.
Global warming is the rise in average temperature of Earth's climate system. The growth of temperature occurs because of increasing pollution that results in the greenhouse effect, which leads to climate change. Thus, global warming can provoke the rise of the sea level because of glaciers’ melting, forests’ shrinkage, and changes in the structure of rainfall, and a number of impacts on humans and plants. Global warming leads to climate change through increasing temperature of seas and oceans, which provokes tornadoes, hurricanes, and tsunamis.
Matson et al. (2010) stated that the climate change poses crucial risks for a wide range of natural and human systems. If there is the tendency of global warming, it will lead to a change in the weather and increased precipitation, which in turn will lead to the rise in global sea level. In the United States, the increase in rainfall is 10 per cent im comparison with the past. At the same time, the amount of precipitation decreased over the equator. A further change in the rainfall will have a huge impact on agriculture by shifting cultivation areas in the northern regions of North America and Eurasia. In addition, the temperature rise will increase the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the ocean. This will increase the rainfall patterns by 11 percent. Heavy precipitation will heighten the threat of flooding and spread of water-borne diseases (Matson et al., 2010).
The consequences of global warming will be felt in the North and South Poles, where increased temperature will lead to glaciers’ melting. Over the past half-century, the temperature in the southwest of the Antarctic and the Antarctic Peninsula, has increased by 2,5°C. In 2002, an iceberg of area over 2,500 km broke away from the Larsen Ice Shelf that is located on the Antarctic Peninsula. This meant the destruction of the glacier. The whole process of destruction took only 35 days. The melting of glacier led to the release of large amounts of icebergs (over a thousand) in the Weddell Sea. Other glaciers are being destroyed too. Thus, in the summer of 2007, an iceberg that was 200 km long and 30 km wide broke away from the Ross Ice Shelf. The accumulation of icebergs prevents the exit of the cold waters of the Ross Sea, which leads to the disruption of ecological balance. The risk of flooding will intensify in greater part of Europe. The glaciers of the Alps and large areas of permafrost will have melted and disappeared completely by the end of this century.
Global warming can lead to increased frequency and intensity of severe weather events, and the spread of infectious diseases. They cause considerable economic damage, threaten the existence of stable ecosystems and human health and life. The increase in the temperature of the surface layers of the world ocean near the equator leads to more frequent and destructive hurricanes. Warming will result in more severe and frequent droughts and will sharply increase the risk of large wildfires. Matson et al. (2010) argued that water availability could decrease in the areas, where rivers are fed by snowpack and glaciers.
Global warming will greatly affect the lives of some animals. For example, seals, penguins and polar bears will be forced to change their place of residence. Many plant and animal species may simply disappear, being unable to adapt to the rapidly changing environment.
A policy of countering global warming includes its mitigation by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to its effects. An evaluation of the causes and consequences of global warming is the basis for action on mitigation and adaptation at the level of states, corporations and individuals. Many environmental organizations argue for taking action against climate change by consumers at the municipal, regional and governmental levels. For today, the main international agreement on combating global warming is the Kyoto protocol (Purdy, 2005). It committed developed countries to reduce CO2 emissions. Another non-profit organization, which is related to the climate change, is Climate Reality Project. It was established in 2011 joining The Climate Project and The Alliance for Climate Protection. This organization is focused on climate change education and fighting with this issue organizing denial campaigns in the whole world. The New Evangelical Partnership for the Common Good is another nonprofit organization that is based on the faith. It is aimed at developing Christian response to particular global and political issues such as nuclear disarmament, environmentalism, human rights, and dialogue with the Muslim world (Miller, 2010). There is another organization that attempts to counter climate change: 350.org. It is an international non-governmental environmental organization that was created to attract the attention of large sections of the public to anthropogenic climate change and the problem of the emission of huge amounts of carbon dioxide CO2.
Environmentalists become the enemies of the fossil-fuel industry, as they convince everybody to turn away from gas, oil and coal (McKibben, 2012). McKibben (2012) states that the fossil-fuel industry systematically undermines the planet’s physical system. A number of movements against gas, oil and coal companies march across the U.S. college campuses. Students act together with investment advisers in order to convince pension funds, universities, and institutional investors to oppose fossil-fuel companies (Mufson, 2013). Gordon (2013) argued that the issue of the effects of fossil fuel on climate “is rousing a new generation of student activists”.
In many highly industrialized countries, there are strict environmental laws and requirements to clean up emissions and develop new technologies that prevent pollution, stricter standards on exhaust emissions of cars, etc. In some countries (the USA, Canada), there is a central body of environmental management. Its purpose is to develop national environmental standards that improve the environmental situation and monitor their implementation.
However, despite warnings and reliable forecasts about the dangers of climate change, the greenhouse gas emission continues to grow. Public commitment to this issue remains unclear. To change people’s attitude towards ecological problems, an appeal to the irrational side of humans’ mind should be provided. Roberts (2012) states that the fact that climate change has no emotional heat is the main barrier to action on it. Ecological messages that could penetrate into humans’ psyches are able to force them to act in a way, which promotes vital environment. This may be done with the help of neuroscientists. They have deep knowledge of marketing. Another powerful force is represented by artists. Their work connects people emotionally and influences perspectives.
There is no clear answer whether the goal of limiting the impact of climate change can be achieved. Thus, to prevent adverse climate changes, which arise under the influence of human activities, various measures are taken. As a result of the application of these measures, one of them is cleaning of the air, which is used by industrial plants, vehicles, heating units, and so on, some cities achieved the reduction in air pollution. However, in many areas, air pollution increases. Global air pollution tends to increase as well. This indicates a large number of difficulties faced when trying to prevent the growth of the anthropogenic aerosol emission in the atmosphere. The problems of preventing an increase in carbon dioxide emission in the atmosphere and the heat generated by the transformations of the energy are even more difficult. There is no simple technical means to solve these problems, except for restrictions in fuel consumption and consumption of most types of energy that is incompatible with further technological progress. Therefore, the warming and the rise in global sea level will continue for thousands of years, even after the situation with the greenhouse gases emission in the atmosphere is stabilized. Nevertheless, despite pessimism, people have to fight climate change for the sake of future generations.
Gibson (2011) argues that present generation’s actions and decisions have a strong effect on the descendents in the future: “everything we do has consequences for something and someone else, reminding us that we are all ultimately connected to creation”. A man understands that all changes are largely anthropogenic. If people stop fighting climate change, it will lead to reduction of livable space, shortages of food, water, mineral and strategic resources, famine, disease epidemics, social unrest and clashes, wars and so on. One just needs to set a goal - to save all resources. The ecology is based on the behavior of every human. It is important to start with oneself. Everyone can contribute to the protection of the environment by sorting the trash, engaging in ennoblement of the city, saving fuel and water, reducing power consumption and so on. If everyone acts in such a way, there will be a great shift in the attitude to global warming. Everyone should realize the possibility and the need to do a good deed every minute.