Down’s Syndrome

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In the world today, there are many events that require more than ordinary attention. Such cases demand serious concerted efforts either to alleviate undesirable consequences or improve the quality of life of the affected people. This paper will talk about the challenges that people with Down’s syndrome and their families face as they go through life, and the psychological knowledge required for overcoming these challenges. It will also talk about the recent history of care delivery, debate surrounding this condition as well as development of National Association for Down’s Syndrome and its achievements.

Down’s syndrome, which is also referred to as Down syndrome, is one of the many development challenges that a child may get. Genetically, some people summarize this condition as Trisomy 21 as it is brought about by the presence of the third copy of chromosome either in full or only in part (Frances, 2009). This condition adversely affects growth and development of a child. The physical growth of the patient is delayed greatly so that he/she may take a long time to have features of an adult person. Another characteristic is that the face does not form really well and may appear deformed. It is also important to consider that these facial features grow slowly and may appear juvenile for prolonged period of time. One of the most dreaded characteristic that is associated with this condition is that it causes mild or moderate cerebral disability.

The IQ of people with this condition is really reduced compared to healthy people, for instance, young adults with DS show an IQ of 50, which is equal to the range of between 8-9 year old children (Skotko et. al. 2009). Mental abilities of people with Down syndrome may vary greatly and the above example is an average. This condition can be identified during pregnancy stage but potential parents shy away from running a test that would lower their anticipations for their unborn babies. It can also be identified by checking an infant’s behaviors shortly after birth, and also through running genetic tests at any instance of a child’s growth. Medical practitioners report that a considerable number of would-be parents terminate their pregnancies if they find out the developing fetus has Down’s syndrome.

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The Theory of Minds (ToM) is very crucial in understanding that humans vary greatly in their mental abilities. This becomes very important when dealing with people or children with Down syndrome. The reason for this is that DS changes the pattern of mental growth and development; it slows down mental development, therefore, increasing the mental gap between normal people and people with this condition.

The Theory of Minds is sometimes described as the ability to compare, attribute and relate mental states. It reasons that every mind is directly affected by knowledge, beliefs, desires and intents, among others. The interplay of all the above brings so called states of mind. Since every person is affected by varying amounts of the above attributes, every mind becomes different from any other. Additionally, the state of mind one could be into at each particular time also varies.

The recognition of ToM that minds are very different, as well as the description of the factors that cause this variation, becomes very crucial in the description of DS as this theory describes deficits that enhance the differences in human minds ( between normal people and people with DS). These deficits may include Autism and all classes associated with this disorder and DS (Wiseman, 2009). As seen earlier, the effects caused by DS are the slowing down of the mental development. For a parent or a guardian raising a child with this disorder, he/she is required to have empathy and realize that the child is very different from him or he/her or any other child. When it comes to learning, the mind of a child with DS needs to be stimulated more; therefore, they need to be understood and sometimes be allowed to learn at a more reduced pace. Additionally, they should be given easier responsibilities which they can handle well. The caregiver should try not to reveal that he/she has less expectations for children with DS. This is important and will help children with DS feel accepted and motivated.

The second set of theories that are very crucial to a parent with a child with DS is the child development theories. In essence, there are many theories that describe the process of child development. They are brought about by renowned researchers and all describe how a child develops from the time it is born to early adulthood. This process is both biological and psychological and happens from infancy, through the adolescence to early adulthood. It leads to increased autonomy in a growing individual; however, the concept of autonomy does not arise while one is raising a person with DS. These people continuously require help from the caregivers and may never be free or independent. A parent raising a child with DS must give continuous support to such a child for almost the whole lifetime. This is because DS limits mental development such that the patients’ mind might never reach full potential of an adult mind. This is the most important factor that a parent should have in mind while bringing up a child with Down’s syndrome.

The issue of Down’s syndrome is very important in the world today. This genetic disorder is rather common and has been around for a long time. Parents, potential parents of children with DS and the society in general need to understand how to deal with this condition. There have been different reactions about the issue of birth and raising of people with DS. Some parents opt to terminate their pregnancies once they discover that the fetus has this syndrome. This condition has also brought about several cases of infanticide where some parents and doctors may kill babies born with this condition. There has been a heated debate on whether these people should be allowed to grow or not. In most countries, there are laws that prohibit infanticide leaving parents with no option than to raise children with this condition.

However, this paper concentrates on people that choose to bring up babies with DS. They will find Theory of Mind useful in understanding children with DS. Additionally, they will utilize various theories of child development to help their children grow well. For this reason, they are in a better position to overcome challenges that are brought about by raising these children. The task is daunting and is usually more demanding than raising a normal child. Additionally, people with DS may require continuous assistance throughout their lifetime so as to overcome challenges brought about by this condition.

There has been heated debate on whether infanticide and termination of pregnancies relation to people with DS is acceptable or not. Unfortunately, this debate in most cases is done by people who are not really related to people with DS. For instance, lawyers criticize condemnation of infanticide by the government. They argue that the parent and the doctors should decide when it can be done. On the other hand, some parents and doctor are for this idea while a good number of people opposes it, and some are not decided altogether (Vis et. al, 2009).

Another debate that surrounds people with DS is whether they should be raised at home or institutionalized. In the first half of the twentieth century, the healthcare service in the US advised parents to institutionalize children with DS, They were often kept in deplorable condition in such institutions (Clemmens, 1984). Lawyers and some medical practitioners still advise that children with DS to be institutionalized. Since the National Association for Down’s Syndrome was formed (NADS), the psychological load of raising a child with DS has reduced greatly. The need for institutionalizing these children has reduced. Through this organization, parents have been empowered and are able to access help from the government (Science Daily, 2014). The pressure on the institutions caring for these children has greatly reduced.

Additionally, these children have been able to receive learning and psychological help that has greatly boosted their quality of life. This has increased their acceptance levels in the society. This organization was established by Kay and Marty McGee and has also helped in engaging the help of professionals to boost care delivery to these children, which has made children with DS acceptable in the society (Carling et. al, 2012).

In conclusion, people with DS require care and protection like other people. Additionally, they need a high quality of life so that they can be happy, which will in turn give joy to their parents. For that reason, parents need psychological support to provide the much needed help and assistance to these children. The psychology of the parents becomes very important. If such parents are helped and supported emotionally, they will be able to have the needed strength to support their children. Institutions such as NADS have also achieved a lot in raising the quality of life for the children and also for the parents. They have also made it possible for government and professionals to participate and improve lives of children and their parents.

Down’s Syndrome

In the world today, there are many events that require more than ordinary attention. Such cases demand serious concerted efforts either to alleviate undesirable consequences or improve the quality of life of the affected people. This paper will talk about the challenges that people with Down’s syndrome and their families face as they go through life, and the psychological knowledge required for overcoming these challenges. It will also talk about the recent history of care delivery, debate surrounding this condition as well as development of National Association for Down’s Syndrome and its achievements.

Down’s syndrome, which is also referred to as Down syndrome, is one of the many development challenges that a child may get. Genetically, some people summarize this condition as Trisomy 21 as it is brought about by the presence of the third copy of chromosome either in full or only in part (Frances, 2009). This condition adversely affects growth and development of a child. The physical growth of the patient is delayed greatly so that he/she may take a long time to have features of an adult person. Another characteristic is that the face does not form really well and may appear deformed. It is also important to consider that these facial features grow slowly and may appear juvenile for prolonged period of time. One of the most dreaded characteristic that is associated with this condition is that it causes mild or moderate cerebral disability.

The IQ of people with this condition is really reduced compared to healthy people, for instance, young adults with DS show an IQ of 50, which is equal to the range of between 8-9 year old children (Skotko et. al. 2009). Mental abilities of people with Down syndrome may vary greatly and the above example is an average. This condition can be identified during pregnancy stage but potential parents shy away from running a test that would lower their anticipations for their unborn babies. It can also be identified by checking an infant’s behaviors shortly after birth, and also through running genetic tests at any instance of a child’s growth. Medical practitioners report that a considerable number of would-be parents terminate their pregnancies if they find out the developing fetus has Down’s syndrome.

The Theory of Minds (ToM) is very crucial in understanding that humans vary greatly in their mental abilities. This becomes very important when dealing with people or children with Down syndrome. The reason for this is that DS changes the pattern of mental growth and development; it slows down mental development, therefore, increasing the mental gap between normal people and people with this condition.

The Theory of Minds is sometimes described as the ability to compare, attribute and relate mental states. It reasons that every mind is directly affected by knowledge, beliefs, desires and intents, among others. The interplay of all the above brings so called states of mind. Since every person is affected by varying amounts of the above attributes, every mind becomes different from any other. Additionally, the state of mind one could be into at each particular time also varies.

The recognition of ToM that minds are very different, as well as the description of the factors that cause this variation, becomes very crucial in the description of DS as this theory describes deficits that enhance the differences in human minds ( between normal people and people with DS). These deficits may include Autism and all classes associated with this disorder and DS (Wiseman, 2009). As seen earlier, the effects caused by DS are the slowing down of the mental development. For a parent or a guardian raising a child with this disorder, he/she is required to have empathy and realize that the child is very different from him or he/her or any other child. When it comes to learning, the mind of a child with DS needs to be stimulated more; therefore, they need to be understood and sometimes be allowed to learn at a more reduced pace. Additionally, they should be given easier responsibilities which they can handle well. The caregiver should try not to reveal that he/she has less expectations for children with DS. This is important and will help children with DS feel accepted and motivated.

The second set of theories that are very crucial to a parent with a child with DS is the child development theories. In essence, there are many theories that describe the process of child development. They are brought about by renowned researchers and all describe how a child develops from the time it is born to early adulthood. This process is both biological and psychological and happens from infancy, through the adolescence to early adulthood. It leads to increased autonomy in a growing individual; however, the concept of autonomy does not arise while one is raising a person with DS. These people continuously require help from the caregivers and may never be free or independent. A parent raising a child with DS must give continuous support to such a child for almost the whole lifetime. This is because DS limits mental development such that the patients’ mind might never reach full potential of an adult mind. This is the most important factor that a parent should have in mind while bringing up a child with Down’s syndrome.

The issue of Down’s syndrome is very important in the world today. This genetic disorder is rather common and has been around for a long time. Parents, potential parents of children with DS and the society in general need to understand how to deal with this condition. There have been different reactions about the issue of birth and raising of people with DS. Some parents opt to terminate their pregnancies once they discover that the fetus has this syndrome. This condition has also brought about several cases of infanticide where some parents and doctors may kill babies born with this condition. There has been a heated debate on whether these people should be allowed to grow or not. In most countries, there are laws that prohibit infanticide leaving parents with no option than to raise children with this condition.

However, this paper concentrates on people that choose to bring up babies with DS. They will find Theory of Mind useful in understanding children with DS. Additionally, they will utilize various theories of child development to help their children grow well. For this reason, they are in a better position to overcome challenges that are brought about by raising these children. The task is daunting and is usually more demanding than raising a normal child. Additionally, people with DS may require continuous assistance throughout their lifetime so as to overcome challenges brought about by this condition.

There has been heated debate on whether infanticide and termination of pregnancies relation to people with DS is acceptable or not. Unfortunately, this debate in most cases is done by people who are not really related to people with DS. For instance, lawyers criticize condemnation of infanticide by the government. They argue that the parent and the doctors should decide when it can be done. On the other hand, some parents and doctor are for this idea while a good number of people opposes it, and some are not decided altogether (Vis et. al, 2009).

Another debate that surrounds people with DS is whether they should be raised at home or institutionalized. In the first half of the twentieth century, the healthcare service in the US advised parents to institutionalize children with DS, They were often kept in deplorable condition in such institutions (Clemmens, 1984). Lawyers and some medical practitioners still advise that children with DS to be institutionalized. Since the National Association for Down’s Syndrome was formed (NADS), the psychological load of raising a child with DS has reduced greatly. The need for institutionalizing these children has reduced. Through this organization, parents have been empowered and are able to access help from the government (Science Daily, 2014). The pressure on the institutions caring for these children has greatly reduced.

Additionally, these children have been able to receive learning and psychological help that has greatly boosted their quality of life. This has increased their acceptance levels in the society. This organization was established by Kay and Marty McGee and has also helped in engaging the help of professionals to boost care delivery to these children, which has made children with DS acceptable in the society (Carling et. al, 2012).

In conclusion, people with DS require care and protection like other people. Additionally, they need a high quality of life so that they can be happy, which will in turn give joy to their parents. For that reason, parents need psychological support to provide the much needed help and assistance to these children. The psychology of the parents becomes very important. If such parents are helped and supported emotionally, they will be able to have the needed strength to support their children. Institutions such as NADS have also achieved a lot in raising the quality of life for the children and also for the parents. They have also made it possible for government and professionals to participate and improve lives of children and their parents.

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