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Economics of Ocean Resources

Most nations have embraced marine spatial planning efforts, and various professional and academic literature analyzes and reviews these processes. Relevant research that can contribute overwhelmingly to new efforts at ocean resources management provides a comparison of the efforts with set standard ideals, guiding spatial planning processes. The paper seeks to address the degree to which paradigms drawn from policy field and planning practice can be applied to the ocean resources management context. It achieves this by analyzing the interim products of an MSP process. The outcome of the paper is given by the emphasis spotlighted to the potential contribution of public policy planning and analysis. The challenge and complexity of ocean resources management when policy foundations are minimized is further highlighted within the paper.

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Policy Development and Implementation for Marine Sustainability

James Acheson acknowledges that ocean absorption of increased carbon dioxide and atmospheric pressure resulting from man-made activities will substantially deepen the challenge of accomplishing marine sustainability (190). An escalation of acidification of the oceans and climate change can be anticipated to pose stark repercussions for marine productivity and biodiversity at both local and global scales. The UAE Integrated Maritime Policy has expressed a determination to make use of an ecosystem approach for the incorporated management of human activities. This offers a key avenue to facilitate maritime sustainability.

At the same time, Baden and Noonan admit that ecosystem-oriented perspectives are in accordance with the inherently interconnected character of ecological, biochemical, and physical processes in the ocean and the human interactions with them (36). Nevertheless, the scientific comprehension of marine systems is ever evolving, and there have remained significant uncertainties in the primary characterization of marine ecosystem function and structure as well as in crucial biological and physical drivers. The art of policy-making and policy-execution should take into account these uncertainties together with the efforts meant to address them. An effectual execution of the marines will be instrumental in ensuring that there is a sustainable usage of the oceans via the use of an ecosystem approach and emphasis on the health of the ecosystem. This is further synchronized through the concept of good environmental status. The initial steps in the execution of marine sustainability should be dependent on the development of the execution of Marine Spatial Planning.

The revision of the Common Maritime Policy should be used as a base to end overfishing within the potential marine nation waters and beyond. This will go a long way to minimize any harmful impacts of fishing on the designated marine ecosystems. The growing populations are likely to demand more food from the oceans, and further steps are required to improve the ecological efficiency of marine harvest. According to Seabright, Marine Protected Areas are presently used as conservation tools under the Middle East Directives (17). So far, Seabright informs that most attention has been focused on seabed (benthic) habitats (22).

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It is important to note is that networking on Marine Protected Areas based on pelagic connectivity has not received much investigation as a means of enabling recovery of fish stocks and to back up a good environmental status at sea basin scale. The decrease of carbon emission has been acknowledged as a precondition for the sustainability of marine ecosystems. Seabright emphasizes that European policymakers should use all opportunities to drive the transformation to a carbon-free economy (34). This is done by advancing measures meant to mitigate carbon emissions. All the strategies should be steered towards enforcing the reduction of carbon emissions and stimulating alternative technologies. 

Seabright urges that the ecosystem approach is most applicable in a holistic manner designed to strengthen the Maritime development (36). This is best accomplished via intensive application of the common practicable framework of objectives for best environmental status. This kind of framework for boosting the ecosystem health should be embraced to ensure attainment of a tighter incorporation of the Middle East environment and marine fisheries as well as maritime and marine nature policies. There is a need for developing ecosystem-based marine together with maritime governance. This can be accomplished through a sustained commitment to a thorough adaptive execution, which makes use of only the best available present scientific knowledge regarding marine ecosystems together with their marine ecosystems, their dynamics, and tools for comprehending influences that shape the ecosystem health. Such an approach should be entrenched in the responsiveness of limitations and uncertainties in characterizing marine ecosystem function and structure as well as core biological and physical drivers.

An approach adopted to economize ocean resources should include the inter-connectivity and complexity in the ocean and the restrictions in developing scenarios of environmental transformation. It should not interrupt the management action based on uncertainty but make proper usage of precaution to avoid unavoidable impacts. It should have real incentive and scope for improvement and innovation, taking due advantage of the instantly emerging scientific prowess, knowledge, and capabilities. Lastly, it should provide increased attention to the function of pelagic systems and habitats in offering functional transformation within marine ecosystems, including using the aspect of the cells of ecosystem functioning in the definition of spatial management fields.

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Impact Assessment and Maritime Spatial Planning

Acheson recommends an incorporated execution of the Marine Directive that offers coordinated management and planning of the seascape (198). Operational and spatial management of activities must be based on the goals for the ecosystem health at the sea-basin scale developed under the Overboard Marine Protection. Scientists and policy makers should up their game by working together to define what level of disruption causes too much disturbance. This constitutes the connectivity of the marine system both between and within the Member States’ marine waters.

In their research, Baden and Noonan see the need for developing an independent analysis required to inform policy choices that promote specified resource uses as well as societal behaviors associated with the oceans (47). Notably, the uncertainties inherent in such choices ought to be recognized early enough and continually reviewed. This should take into account credible information, research and development (R&D) activities. Policies, including those on energy development, deep-sea mining, and marine renewable must be backed up by the continuing analysis of the impacts of different policy options that internalize environmental uncertainties and costs and thus build a new learning.

Towards Increased and Sustainable Ocean Harvest

In their introspective, Baden and Noonan strongly allege that the Revised Common Fisheries Policy must be adopted in bringing present fisheries exploitation to the sustainable levels by minimizing overfishing and the injurious impacts of fisheries on the marine ecosystems (97). In this case, scientific advice touching on fisheries management as well stock recovery must be followed strictly. As a way of expecting demand from the increased food biomass taken from the ocean and drawn from human population growth, Acheson recommends the need for enforcing greater commitment to policy development (200). This is closely tied to knowledge building on how to boost ecological efficiency of ocean harvest. Additionally, this includes exploration of the potential for the ecologically efficient aquaculture as well as sustainable seafood from species groups from the lower levels in marine food webs.

Networks of Marine Protected Areas

Acheson highlights that networks of Marine Protected Areas must have increased attention as tools within a general ecosystem-based management, including sea-basin scale (190). This initiative needs significantly increased obligation to comprehend ecological connections and water movements between ecologically substantial and vulnerable fields. This kind of knowledge must be well built into the development of Marine Protected Area networks; these play an active role in ensuring that there are viable environmental statutes. 

As seen in the paper, a growing interest in environmental economics has successfully led to a deeper understanding of how oceanic resources can he harnessed and utilized in an organized way. The approach to environment, and oceanic resources in particular, should not be taken lightly on the surface, as the case has been in the previous years. The concerned bodies should up their game in their handling of these natural resources. Different economic zones and blocs should know the boundaries of their roles, without interfering with others when it comes to environmental and oceanic care. Property resources have the potential to bring back great rewards only if relevant measures have been adopted to curb them. This can be accomplished through a sustained commitment to a thorough adaptive execution, which makes use of only the best available present scientific knowledge regarding marine ecosystems together with their marine ecosystems, their dynamics, and tools for comprehending influences that shape ecosystem health.

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